- The G20 leaders addressed crucial topics, including food security, climate, development, health, and digitalization.
- The inclusion of the African Union as a permanent member was a significant achievement, expanding the G20’s equitable representation and influence.
India took center stage on the global economic platform as it assumed the presidency of the G20 in December 2022 during the Bali Summit in Indonesia, succeeding Indonesian President Joko Widodo. Under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, India embarked on its maiden G20 presidency and hosted the 2023 G20 summit in New Delhi. This marked a historic moment, as it was the first time that India had taken the helm of the G20, with its presidency spanning from December 1, 2022, to November 30, 2023.
Dr. S. Jaishankar, the External Affairs Minister of India and a Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha) from Gujarat State, shared the news of the successful conclusion of the G20 Summit and its associated bilateral meetings in New Delhi through a post on X (formerly Twitter). He highlighted the significant achievements of India’s presidency, emphasizing the focus on the Global South and the showcase of India’s rich civilizational heritage alongside its contemporary accomplishments. Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision provided clear direction for the summit’s growth and development prospects.
Key Outcomes of the G20 2023 Summit:
- Green Development Pact: The G20 leaders committed to environmental sustainability by endorsing a Green Development Pact, highlighting their dedication to addressing global environmental challenges.
- Action Plan on Sustainable Development Goals: The G20 formulated an action plan to advance progress toward achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, emphasizing the importance of inclusive and sustainable development.
- High-Level Principles on Anti-Corruption: Leaders of the G20 nations emphasized their commitment to combating corruption through the establishment of high-level principles, reinforcing transparency and accountability in governance.
- Support for Digital Public Infrastructure: Recognizing the pivotal role of digital infrastructure in the modern world, the G20 leaders expressed their support for initiatives aimed at enhancing digital public infrastructure.
- Reform of Multilateral Development Banks: The G20 leaders underscored the need for reforms within multilateral development banks, seeking to improve their effectiveness and responsiveness to global development challenges.
The G20 leaders reached a historic consensus on several critical issues:
- Global Minimum Tax: They agreed to implement a global minimum tax rate of 15% for multinational corporations, a move aimed at curbing tax evasion and ensuring fair taxation.
- Special Drawing Rights (SDR) Allocation: The G20 leaders endorsed a $650 billion allocation of Special Drawing Rights by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to boost global liquidity and provide vital support to low-income countries.
- Climate Commitment: Reaffirming their commitment to the Paris Agreement, the G20 leaders pledged to enhance their nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and strive for net-zero emissions by 2050.
- Global Health Threats Council (GHTC): To bolster global health security and preparedness for future pandemics, the G20 leaders launched the Global Health Threats Council.
- African Union’s Inclusion: The G20 welcomed the African Union (AU) as a permanent member, recognizing Africa’s pivotal role and voice in global affairs. The inclusion of the African Union as a permanent member marks a significant achievement, expanding the G20’s representation and influence. This underscores the importance of equitable representation and reaffirms the G20’s commitment to global cooperation.
“India” may be renamed to “Bharat”:
One notable aspect of India’s presidency was the use of the term “Bharat” instead of “India” on the G20 nameplate during the 2023 G20 summit in New Delhi. This choice was influenced by the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), the ideological parent of the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which has long advocated for referring to the country as Bharat. Supporters argue that “India” was a name imposed by British colonial rulers, although historians note that the name “Bharat” has historical roots predating colonial rule by centuries. Article 1 of the Indian Constitution recognizes the country as “India, that is Bharat,” underscoring the synonymous nature of the two names.
Throughout its G20 presidency, India’s priorities largely focused on benefiting the Global South and developing countries. After extensive negotiations, the leaders adopted a consensus-driven declaration addressing various issues, including the Ukraine conflict.
The G20 Summit’s second day commenced with world leaders, including Joe Biden, Rishi Sunak, and Justin Trudeau, paying homage to Mahatma Gandhi at Rajghat.
India’s generous invitations to Nigeria, Egypt, Comoros and other world leaders
In addition to the core G20 nations, India extended invitations to Nigeria, led by Chief Bola Ahmed Adekunle Tinubu GCFR, the 16th and current president of Africa’s most populous country. India’s invitation included Bangladesh, Comoros, Egypt, Mauritius, Netherlands, Oman, and Singapore. Three regional and international organizations, namely the African Union (AU), the African Union Development Agency-New Partnership for Africa’s Development (AUDA-NEPAD), and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), were also invited as guests.
Despite the absence of Russian President Vladimir Putin and Chinese President Xi Jinping, the G20 summit in New Delhi remained significant, with German Chancellor Olaf Scholz highlighting its importance.
India’s G20 presidency in 2023 showcased its commitment to addressing global challenges, with a strong focus on sustainable development, climate action, and equitable representation. The use of “Bharat” emphasized the nation’s historical identity, while the successful outcomes of the summit demonstrated India’s growing influence on the world stage.